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Indian Almond Leaves: Benefits For Your Aquarium


Staff member
Jan 19, 2024
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Indian almond leaves don’t sound like something you would use for an aquarium, but they can come in surprisingly handy.

This guide will teach you about these interesting leaves, and how they can help take the health of your tank to the next level.

What Are Indian Almond Leaves?​

Indian almond leaves are one of the trade’s best-kept secrets! You can often see these dried leaves staining the waters in freshwater aquariums all around the world. They’re a favorite for seasoned aquarists looking for a natural alternative to pricey water conditioners or medications.

But what exactly are they?

These brown leaves come from the Terminalia catappa tree. In less scientific terms, it’s usually just called the Indian almond tree. It’s a large tropical tree that’s part of the leadwood family.

Indian almond leaves before being added to a betta fish tank

The tree grows throughout southwest Asia, Africa, and even Australia. It produces nuts, which often contribute to local cuisine and trade. However, it’s the leaves that are the most sought-after.

Throughout history, Indian almond leaves have been a mainstay in traditional medicines. Even today, humans use it to treat common ailments as an at-home remedy. Many believe that the medicinal properties translate to fish, too!

In many cases, The Indian almond tree lines riverbanks and grows next to fish-filled bodies of water. Naturally, the leaves fall to the water below and impact the quality of the water. These trees produce a lot of leaves, so the effects are not subtle!

Author Note: While many would think that leaf litter would negatively affect fish, the reality is the contrary! Indian almond leaves play an important role in shaping many underwater ecosystems.

These days, Indian almond leaves are readily available at most pet stores. Harvesters collect the leaves once they fall to the ground. They go through a natural drying process before going to stores, making them easy to use for fish-keepers of any skill level.

Benefits Of Using Them In Your Tank​

Many seasoned aquarists swear by Indian almond leaves! They look like simple yard debris, but the effect they have on your tank’s water is astonishing.

Here are a few ways you can use them to benefit your underwater habitat.

1. Improving Water Quality​

Some refer to Indian almond leaves as a natural water conditioner. The stuff that comes out of your tap isn’t the most conducive to fish. It’s treated at a plant and is nothing like the natural rivers and streams your fish come from!

While you could use expensive conditioners, Indian almond leaves are a far better alternative.

Indian almond leaves release tannic acids and other beneficial substances, which many refer to as merely “tannins.” When submerged in the water, the leaves degrade and release those tannins into the water. It even stains the water, creating a yellow or brownish look!

The color change is similar to what you’d see when seeping a teabag in hot water. The brownish hues can be a bit alarming at first. But don’t fret! The change is great for your fish!

Author Note: Do a bit of research and see what kind of environment your fish come from. Chances are, the water is dark brown or even black. That coloration comes from tannins.

It’s not just an aesthetic change that occurs. Tannins also significantly improve water quality. The tannic acids hold medicinal properties for both humans and fish.

Tannins improve pH levels and can also lower overall hardness. But more importantly, it replicates your fish’s natural environment. That alone can make your aquarium much healthier.

Stress can be a serious problem in fish tanks. Having a familiar tannin-stained environment can do a lot to help fish stay happy and healthy. Pair that with all the medicinal properties, and you’ll have top-notch water conditions that help your fish thrive.

They’re a common sight in betta fish tanks and freshwater shrimp tanks. But, most freshwater tropical fish will benefit from those tannins.

2. Lowering pH Levels​

If you have fish that prefer lower pH levels, Indian almond leaves are a must-have. Not all fish will enjoy slightly acidic water, but a vast majority of tropical species do best with lower pH.

Indian almond leaves naturally lower the pH balance in an aquarium. Not only that, but it helps to reduce carbonate hardness, which contributes to overall pH.

Lower pH readings are ideal for many freshwater fish. It’s closer to what they experience in the wild. Plus, acidic water is better for managing bioload.

Ammonia levels tend to rise faster in neutral or high-pH water. That’s because ammonia takes longer to convert. With a lower pH level, ammonia can quickly convert to the less-fatal ammonium. As a result, your aquarium will stay healthier and cleaner for your fish!

The tannins that come from Indian almond leaves work gradually. It takes time for the leaves to work their magic.

But this is a good thing!

Many commercial products lower the pH suddenly. While good on paper, the change can be a bit drastic for your fish. Furthermore, the effects are temporary at best.

Author Note: Water conditioners utilize mild acids or bases to combat rising pH levels. But those additives wear off after a while, sending water conditions back to square one. With Indian almond leaves, the change is gradual and long-lasting.

3. Treating Various Health Issues​

Believe it or not, Indian almond leaves are thought to address a wide range of health issues with your fish.

Remember how we said that these leaves are a part of traditional medicine? Well, humans have used them for centuries to address bacterial and fungal issues.

The tannings the leaves produce are said to have natural antibacterial and antifungal properties. It all comes down to why the tannins exist in the first place!

On a healthy tree, tannins usually stay within the bark and leaves. The tree uses the tannins to draw out enzymes from bacteria and fungus. It’s the tree’s natural defense mechanism against infection!

When the tannins leach out of leaves and into the water, that natural infection-fighting property benefits your fish.

The leaves may help to strengthen the immune system of fish and invertebrates. All the creatures in your tank have the power to fight off pathogens in the water. But if their immune system weakens, they can start to suffer from low-grade infections.

Typically, infections manifest themselves as fin rot, various skin problems, and viruses. Those infections can quickly spread throughout the aquarium, affecting other fish along the way.

Indian almond leaf tannins can address those problems and create a much healthier environment.

Many aquarists prefer to use the leaves in lieu of traditional medications. Some will utilize the leaves in quarantine tanks to speed up the healing process. Others will take advantage of their healing properties to prevent infections from the jump.

Author Note: They’re particularly useful for fish that have long flowing fins, such as bettas. There’s anecdotal evidence to suggest that it helps fight off infections like fin rot.

4. Creating Hiding Spots & Protection​

The dark coloration that comes with Indian almond leaf tannins can do a lot to make your fish feel safer. That slight staining helps to disperse light differently and creates a more comfortable environment for shyer fish. On top of that, the leaves themselves offer plenty of places to hide!

Smaller fish and shrimp will appreciate this extra protection the most. They can quickly hide under the leaves whenever larger fish approach. Young fry can benefit, too!

Either way, it doesn’t hurt to have a few additional hiding spots for smaller species. Indian almond leaves don’t take up a ton of space. But, they create those additional hiding spots that can make all the difference.

5. Encouraging Spawning​

Speaking of fish fry, many aquarists use Indian almond leaves to induce spawning. These leaves offer two distinct benefits: Protection and improved water quality.

As mentioned earlier, Indian almond leaves make a great hiding spot. Some fish species need this to start spawning. This is especially true in a larger community tank.

Almost all fish in the aquarium present a clear danger for eggs and fry! Hungry fish are quick to gobble up any high-protein snack, and that includes baby fish.

Many species will also hold off on breeding because the tank lacks any form of protection. Indian almond leaves can offer the protection they seek. Some species, such as the betta fish, will actively use leaves to create nests. Bettas like to create their bubble nests underneath floating leaves.

A handful of Indian almond leaves

Meanwhile, other species may lay their eggs on the underside of submerged leaves. Whatever the case may be, the leaves keep the eggs hidden from hungry eyes! Fish fry can also use the leaves to steer clear of danger once they become free-swimming.

Indian almond leaves can also improve water conditions to promote spawning. Some species are notoriously difficult to breed because they require very specific water parameters! They might need lower pH levels, slightly darker waters, or good hardness ratings.

Those species will love having Indian almond leaves in the environment. The leaves will lower both the pH level and the carbonate hardness levels. Plus, the staining limits light penetration at the bottom of the water column. All of those factors encourage spawning in pickier species.

6. Helping Shrimp Tanks Thrive​

If you have shrimp in your tank, Indian almond leaves can help them reach their full potential! Most shrimp species are natural grazers.

They look for plant detritus, algae, and small microorganisms to eat. While you could provide some food here and there, most prefer to scavenge for meals on their own.

Indian almond leaves are an excellent food source. They’re perfect for dwarf shrimp that can’t eat larger items.

As the leaves break down, the shrimp will feed on the remnants! They continue to pick at the leaves until there’s nothing left. This helps with the natural degradation process while giving your shrimp a nutrient-rich food source.

Author Note: It’s not just the leaves themselves they eat. The decomposition process attracts microorganisms, such as infusoria. Those microorganisms are practically invisible to the naked eye, but they make a top-notch meal for shrimp!

Many shrimp-keepers report better overall health when Indian almond leaves are in the tank. Not only that, but seasoned aquarists say that it encourages more breeding and a better survival rate for shrimplets.

Different Ways To Include Them In Your Aquarium​

The beauty of Indian almond leaves is that they’re versatile and easy to use. There are no precise measurements to worry about or complicated steps to take. In nature, these leaves work their magic without human intervention whatsoever!

In your home aquarium, you can choose to use them in several different ways. Here are some of the most common methods.

Submerged Leaves​

The typical way aquarists use Indian almond leaves is by simply dropping them in the aquarium! Submerged leaves will decompose slowly over time, releasing their tannins to infuse the water and improve conditions.

Before you add the leaves, check your filtration system. Remove any activated carbon elements you might have. The carbon removes the staining. More on that later!

Author Note: It’s also a good idea to rinse the leaves out first. You don’t want leftover dust or debris to make its way into the tank.

Generally, a medium-sized leaf is adequate for a small 10-gallon tank. If you have something larger, add as many leaves as you need while sticking to that ratio.

Let the leaves sink to the bottom and let them be. You can strategically place them to create hiding spots or allow them to fall naturally. The choice is yours!

Some aquarists will let the leaves soak for a few weeks before removing and replacing them. That choice is up to you, but if you have shrimp and other tiny creatures that feed on the leaves, it’s best to let them decompose completely.

Floating Leaves​

If you want to block out some light, allowing the leaves to float is a good option. The leaves will create a darker environment. Plus, some fish species may take advantage of the surface shelter to build bubble nests.

Generally, floating leaves won’t last as long. As the organic material softens and breaks down, it will sink to the bottom of the tank. However, it can provide some temporary shelter for a week or so.

Leaf Substrate​

Another unique option is to create a substrate out of torn leaves. For this technique, you need to wash your leaves and tear them up into tiny pieces.

You can use the leaves alone to create a fine layer of the organic substrate. Or, you can adopt the same method to cover existing sand or gravel. In nature, decomposed leaf litter is the norm!

Using this technique can really help you take that natural setup to the next level.

Author Note: Leaf substrates tend to break down a bit faster than whole leaves. However, the manageable chunks will create a feast for hungry shrimp and invertebrates.

Indian Almond Leaf Tea​

Want to take advantage of Indian almond leaves without the added debris? If so, you can create a tea that you pour into your aquarium! It acts as a potent tannin extract.

Indian almond leaf teas are very common. You may even see them sold in stores!

Making the tea is a cinch. Grab a large mason jar or heat-proof container. Then, place a couple of medium-large leaves inside. If you want to create a super-potent tea, you can fill the jar to the halfway point with leaves.

Author Note: This isn’t required though. A couple of leaves will create a strong extract either way.

Pour about two liters of water over the leaves and let the mixture steep overnight.

In the morning, remove the leaves and any leaf litter. The water should be deep yellow or brown depending on how many leaves you used.

You can pop the lid on and store the extract in your fridge for several months. When you’re ready to use it, add about two tablespoons per gallon of water in the aquarium. That ratio should dilute it enough while still benefiting the tank.

Why Do They Change The Color Of The Water?​

Whether you create an extracted tea or let the leaves soak in your tank naturally, you’ll notice the water changing colors. Depending on how many Indian almond leaves you use, it could range from a subtle yellow tinge to deep brown.

Don’t let the color fool you. Your tank’s not dirty!

The coloration comes from the tannic acids. When they release from the leaves, it infuses the water with those signature brown hues.

The color is not dangerous for your fish. It’s not a sign of an unhealthy and hazardous tank, either. The effect is the same as soaking tea leaves to drink. Slight coloration just means that your fish are taking advantage of the antifungal and antibacterial tannins!

In the wild, those tannins can make the water look downright murky! Some bodies of water adopt a deep black color because of all the staining.

Author Note: If you’re not too keen on the look, tannins are pretty easy to clear up. All you need is activated carbon. Carbon will soak up the tannins, which may help to lighten the brown color or remove it altogether.

Keep in mind that activated carbon filters can only do so much before they need replacing. If you want to control the water coloration, you’ll need to swap out old filters for newer ones periodically.

Is It Possible To Use Too Many?​

Using too many Indian almond leaves is harder than you might think.

Remember: Many fish come from natural blackwaters that block light completely! Fish enjoy the tannins and usually have no problem with deep color staining.

The only way to use “too much” would be if you used a ridiculous amount of leaves and left very little room for your fish.

All that said, keep an eye on pH levels. You don’t want things to dip beyond your fish’s comfort levels.

In the event that you’ve gone a little overboard with the Indian almond leaves, there are a few easy fixes. The first is to take advantage of activated carbon filters. As we said earlier, carbon will soak the tannins right up to clear the water.

You can also perform partial water changes. Change 25 percent of the water every few weeks to lighten the tannin load.

Author Note: Using too many Indian almond leaves is rare. But to be on the safe side, stick to one medium-sized leaf for every 10 gallons.

Closing Thoughts​

Indian almond leaves are a great option for aquarists who are looking to naturally enhance the quality of their tank. As long as your fish are compatible with the conditions that these leaves help facilitate, we think you should consider giving them a shot.

Let us know if you have any questions that we didn’t cover in this guide. We’re more than happy to help you out!
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